Title, BS Part 1 (Fusion welded Pressure Vessels, C-Steels). Contributor, BSI. Publisher, BSI British Standards Institution, Export Citation . 21 Sep brought all the pressure vessel interests together under one general It was used, for instance, in BS and BS pressure vessel. 22 Jul For vessels under internal pressure the design pressure is usually taken at BS – Fusion Welded Pressure Vessels for Use in the.

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Nonrefrigerated and refrigerated, American Petroleum Institute, Spherical and cylindrical vessels. The main applications for fans are for high flow, low pressure applications such as supplying air for drying, conveying material suspended in a gas stream, removing fumes, or in condensing towers.

UK Rules For Unfired Pressure Vessels – Strathprints

Introduction to Plant design General principles The design of a process plant is a complex activity that will usually involve many different disciplines over a considerable period of time. A Safety Report should demonstrate that consideration has been given to the appropriate standards and codes of practice developed by legislators, regulators, professional institutions and trade associations.

Some of the techniques that can be considered are: A number of direct or indirect techniques can be employed.

Loss of containment may occur due to leaks, equipment failure, fire or explosion and result in a major accident. Discontinuities such as vessel ends, changes of cross-section and ptessure of thickness; Joints bolted and welded ; Bimetallic joints; Holes and openings; Flanges; Nozzles and connections; Bolt seating and tightening; Supports and lugs.

However consideration should also be given to other parameters and the vsssel loading and any likely snow loading should also be considered.

Assessments should be based on: BS Hi all, thank you for the information. In ptessure terms outright failure of a properly designed, constructed, operated and maintained pressure vessel is rare. Major problems associated with heat exchanger design that may affect safety include fouling, polymerization, solidification, overheating, leakage, tube vibration and tube rupture.

BS – Boiler and Pressure Vessel engineering – Eng-Tips

Reliance should never be placed upon single valves for isolation. At each stage it is important that the personnel involved have the correct combination of technical competencies and experience in order to ensure that all aspects of the design process are being adequately addressed.

Consideration should be given to the modes of failure of the control and cooling systems to ensure that the hazards of a runaway exothermic reaction are minimised; Phase – the reaction may take place in the gas, liquid or sometimes solid phase. More detailed calculations are then required to confirm and refine the original design and to identify an optimum layout.


Conformity between projects can be achieved if standard designs are used whenever practicable. This Technical Measures Document primarily considers the latter stages of the detailed design processes and identifies the detailed design issues, codes and applicable standards for the mechanical design of equipment. This BS supersedes BS The most common materials are reinforced concrete, insulating material, carbon brick, rubber, glass and plastic.

Design Codes – Plant

Documentation should also show that the workmanship is of the quality specified and that inspection and acceptance tests were carried out as required under the contract. This authority is responsible for adherence during both the design and construction phases in accordance with the standard code.

Pumps are available throughout a vast range of sizes and capacities and are also available in a wide range of materials including various metals and plastics. Rotating equipment Process machines are particularly important items of equipment in process plants and in relation to pressure systems since they are required to provide the peessure force necessary to transfer process fluids liquids, solids and gases from one area of operation to another.

Several different methods are used to construct pressure vessels, most however are constructed using welded joints. A number of publications are dedicated to the handling of ammonia and specific guidance is given in:.

The design of heat exchangers is covered in many texts. Temperature In determining design temperatures a number of factors should be considered including: Deterioration is possible on all vessel surfaces in contact with any range of organic or inorganic compounds, with contaminants, or fresh water, with steam or with the atmosphere. Part 1 – Specification for carbon and carbon manganese steels Part 2 – Specification for alloy steels Part 3 – Specification for corrosion and heat resisting steels BS There are numerous texts available on the details of pressure vessel design however the basis of the design of pressure vessels is the use of appropriate formulae for vessel dimensions in conjunction with suitable values of design strength.

Other Vessels including storage tanks Some vessels that gs used are not designated as pressure vessels.

UK Rules For Unfired Pressure Vessels

Failure modes Pressure vessels are subject to a variety of loads and other conditions that cause stress and in certain cases may cause serious failure. It is often the prime cause of deterioration and may occur on any part of a vessel. Many pumps are of the centrifugal type, although positive displacement types such as reciprocating and screw types are also used.

The combination of temperature and pressure should be considered since this affects the mechanical integrity of any equipment that is installed.


The form of deterioration may be electrochemical, chemical, mechanical or combinations of all. Evidence of a number of pre-commissioning and commissioning checks should be presented to verify that the equipment as installed has been tested and is suitable for operation and meets the design intent. The maximum allowable accumulated pressure MAAP is specified within the various codes and this should be taken into account when the relief valve set point is selected.

Vibration One of the main causes of failure of rotating equipment is vibration. They should be sufficiently chemically resistant to the fluid contained and not be significantly affected by ageing. Evidence should be provided in the safety report that the process conditions and environment in which the equipment is to be utilised have been assessed and that an appropriate design temperature has been selected.

By collection and analysis of vibration signatures of rotating equipment it is possible to identify which components of the system are responsible for particular frequencies of the vibration signal.

Register now while it’s still free! This monitoring may be carried out on the basis of performance or condition or both. Erosion is often localised especially at areas of high velocity or impact.

The Safety Report should adequately demonstrate that consideration has been given to the concepts. These standards often specify design, construction and testing details such as material selection, shop inspection and tests, drawings, clearances, construction procedures etc. Design factors may be appropriate in either the mechanical engineering design or in the process design where factors are often added to allow some flexibility in process operation. Managing Construction for Health and Safety.

It is important to demonstrate that the correct materials of construction have been used and that appropriate construction techniques have been employed so as not to introduce construction faults and flaws into the plant. If erosion is likely to occur then more resistant materials should be specified or the material surface protected in some way. A number of publications are dedicated to the handling of ammonia and specific guidance is given in: This often causes seal damage or fatigue failure and subsequent leakage and can result in a major accident.

The relevant standards and codes provide comprehensive information about the design and manufacture of vessels and vessel design and fabrication is an area well covered by standards and codes.